This paper is a meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials, a total of 785 adult subjects. The effects analysis across all participants yielded a significant small-to-medium mean effect size. This means that individuals practicing breathwork experienced lower levels of stress than those of the control conditions. Furthermore, the self-reported anxiety and depression of the experimental participants were significantly altered compared to controls. This shows that consistent breath work may increase quality of life and reduce levels of anxiety and depression in low to moderate-risk individuals.
This study aims to investigate whether breathing techniques, namely Holotropic Breathwork, can aid in the development of self-awareness. To do this, they used both a quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. The 20 participants participated in 4 Holotropic Breathwork sessions separated by 12-weeks over the course of the experimental portion. The findings demonstrated that novices experienced positive temperament changes, while experienced participants exhibited positive changes in character traits. However, all participants demonstrated enhanced self-awareness, as evidenced by reduced scores in persistence temperament, interpersonal problems, accommodation tendencies, neediness, and hostility.
This study compares three types of daily 5-min breathwork exercises (cyclic sighing, box breathing, and cyclic hyperventilation with retention) with 5 minutes of mindfulness meditation over a 1-month period. The results showed that the exhale-focused cyclic sighing showed the most significant mode of improvement and reduction in physiological arousal and anxiety.